Print ISSN: 1994-6309    Online ISSN: 2541-819X
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Vol. 22, No 2 April - June 2020

Paper Submission guidelines

 Note: if there are too many spelling and grammatical mistakes in your study written in Russian and English, or if you do not take into account the editorial requirements for style, your research may not be accepted without paying due attention to its content. Before sending the manuscript to the editorial office, authors are strongly recommended to verify their papers using the Anti-Plagiarism system.

Obligatory accompanying documents:

1. The paper itself.
2. Information for the RSCI, which is placed in the paper file after the list of references.
3. License Agreement scan on two sheets (you can create an archive).
4. Expert Opinion on the possibility of open publication scan.


 Scientific publication should have the following structure:

TITLE (should be as short as possible and reflect the content of the text).
Full list of authors with the full name. The Name and Surname of the author(s) should be fully written.
Full name of the organization for each of the authors, indicating the street, house number, city, zip code and country.
For each of the authors, it is NECESSARY to indicate his/her unique identification code ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) and e-mail. If there is no ORCID, it is necessary to go to https://orcid.org/ and register with the system. After registration, it is necessary to edit personal data and the list of publications.
UDC (The index of the Universal Decimal Classification is specified. For the English-language block it is not necessary to specify).
Paper history:
Received: (Date of receipt of work in the editorial office. Important: The work should be received no later than 3 months before the official publication of the issue according to the schedule. In exceptional cases, with the agreement of the editorial staff of the journal, the deadline for receiving the paper in the nearest issue can be extended, but not more than for two weeks.)
Review: (Date is indicated by the editorial board)
Adopted: (Date is indicated by the editorial board)
Available online: (Date is indicated by the editorial board)
Keywords: (Keywords (no more than 15 words and combinations)).
Abstract to the paper should be:
- informative (do not contain general words);
- original; (reflect the main content of the paper and the research results);
- structured (follow the results description logic).
The volume of the abstract should be 200...250 words). The volume of abstract in English should be at least 250 words!
The abstract should include the following aspects of the content of the paper:
- the reasoning,
- the subject,
- the purpose of the work;
- method or methodology of the work;
- results of work;
- the field of application of the results;
- conclusions.
For citation: (The authors indicate an exemplary reference in accordance with GOST R 7.05-2008 “Bibliographic reference” for future work in this journal. The editors reserve the right to edit this item.)
*Correspondence address (Full name, degree, title, position and work place of the author for correspondence, as well as the address, phone number and e-mail should be provided!)
INTRODUCTION (1…2 pages A brief review of the literature on the research problem is given, the issues that have not been resolved before are indicated, the purpose and objectives of the research are formulated and justified).
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY (Theory (for theoretical works) or experiment technique (for experimental works). Repetitions, excessive details and well-known statements, detailed conclusions of formulas and equations (give only final formulas, explaining how they were obtained) should be avoided).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (A section containing a brief description of the experimental and/or theoretical data obtained. The presentation of the results should consist of identifying the observed regularities, and not in the mechanical retelling of the contents of the tables and graphs. The results should be presented in the past tense. The discussion should contain an interpretation of the results obtained research (the results of the hypothesis of the study, the results of the study, the proposals for practical application, and proposals for future research).
CONCLUSIONS (Conclusions on the results of the work described in the paper, it should be concise.)
REFERENCES (The list of references includes sources containing materials that the author used to write the paper, and is drawn up according to the samples given below. The literature should reflect the state of scientific research in different countries in the problem area under consideration. References should be accessible to the scientific community, therefore publication DOI is welcome. The quantity of references should not be less than 20 with a larger (more than 50%) share of foreign sources. in square brackets, for example [1] or [2-5]. The quantity of sources should correspond to the order of references to them in the text. References to the authors’ extended abstract of dissertation, dissertation for the scientific degree are allowed in the presence of its available electronic versions. References to the monographs should have a subordinate value and make up no more than 10…15%, because of its inaccessibility to the wide scientific community. References to unpublished works are inadmissible. Self citation should not exceed 15…17%. If the work is published in both Russian and English (or other) languages, then it is better to give a reference to the translation work in the list of references. Because the journal has entered the scientific publications citation bases, in addition to the traditional list of literature (GOST 7.0.5-2008), an additional list is needed with the translation of Russian-language sources into Latin and English. Transliteration is strictly based on the BSI system (see http://en.translit.net/?account=bsi).)
FUNDING (Indicate the source(s) of the research funding (if any, for example, a grant), using the following: “The study was carried out with financial support ...”).
CONFLICT OF INTERESTS (To specify the existence of a so-called conflict of interests, that is, conditions and facts that can influence the research results (for example, funding from stakeholders and companies, their participation in discussing research results, writing a manuscript, etc.). use the following wording: “The authors declare no conflict of interest.”)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (It is possible to express gratitude to those whose contribution to the study was insufficient to recognize them as co-authors, but at the same time it is considered to be significant authors (consultations, technical assistance, translations, etc.).)
On the next page
English-language block of the paper
Title (TITLE OF THE PAPER) (Title of the paper in English. The title should reflect the main idea of the research performed, be as brief as possible).
Authors’ affiliation
   Full list of authors in English with the full names. The name and surname of the author(s) should be completely written.
   The full name of the organization in English for each of the authors, indicating the street, house number, city, zip code and country.
   For each of the authors, it is NECESSARY to indicate its unique identification code ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) and e-mail. If there is no ORCID, author should go to https://orcid.org/ and register in the system. After registration, author should edit his/her personal data and the list of publications.
   Paper history:
   Received: (Date of receipt of the manuscript to the editorial board.) Important: The manuscript should be received no later than 3 months before the official publication of the issue according to the schedule. In exceptional cases, in consultation with the editorial board of the journal, the deadline for receiving the manuscript in the nearest number may be extended, but not more than for two weeks.)
   Revised: (Date to be indicated by the editorial board)
   Accepted: (The date is indicated by the editorial board)
   Available online: (Date to be indicated by the editorial board)
   Keywords: (no more than 15 words and combinations).
Abstract for a paper in English should be:
   informative (do not contain general words);
   substantial (to reflect the main content of the paper and the results of the research);
   structured (follow the logic of describing the results in the paper).
The volume of the abstract should be at least 250 words !!!).
The abstract should include the following aspects of the content of the paper:
   the rationale, the subject, the purpose of the work;
   method or methodology of the work;
   results of work;
   the field of application of the results;
For citation: (The authors indicate an approximate reference to the future work in this journal in accordance with the rules for issuing bibliographic references in English, accepted in the journal.) The editors reserve the right to edit this item.)
*Corresponding author (Full name, degree, title, position and place of work of the author for correspondence is indicated in English.) The address, telephone and e-mail should also be presented!)
References (The list of used literature in English is prepared according to the rules presented on the journal's website)
Funding (Indicate the source(s) of the research funding (if any, for example, a grant), using, for example, the following: “The study was carried out with financial support...".)
Conflicts of Interest (Indicate the existence of a so-called conflict of interest, that is, conditions and facts that may affect the results of the study (for example, funding from stakeholders and companies, their participation in discussing research results, writing a manuscript, etc.). In the absence of such, use the following wording: “The author declare no conflict of interest.”)
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (It is possible to express gratitude to those whose contribution to the study was insufficient to recognize them as co-authors, but at the same time it is considered to be significant authors (consultations, technical assistance, translations, etc.).)
On the next page
Information for RSCI (see manuscript template)




The text should be typed in Microsoft Word. The format of the originals is A4. Font – Times New Roman, font size of the body text – 14 pt. Text should be typed with a one-and-a-half spacing. Margins of 2 cm should be left free at the top, bottom, left- and right-hand sides of each page. The indentation of 1.25 cm should be set. The transfers should be included. Mathematical formulas. Complex and multi-line formulas should be typed entirely in the formula editor Microsoft Equation 3.0. Drawings, tables, graphs, photographs should be included in the text of the paper.
Recommendation on tables typing
Tables should be located in the text of the manuscript.
Tables are numbered in order of its mentioning in the text in Arabic numerals. After the number should follow its name (in English!).
All columns in tables should have headings and are separated by vertical lines. In the “cap” of the tables the letter designations of the parameters and its units of measurement are indicated (if possible). For example: t, °C; V, % wt; HV, MPa and etc.
Words abbreviations in tables are not allowed.
Create tables using the capabilities of MS Word (Table →Add Table) or MS Excel. Tables typed manually using spaces or tabs can not be used.
The data of micro-X-ray spectral analysis of various areas of coating
No area
Chemical element, at. %
Abbreviations should be avoided. All the abbreviations in the text should be deciphered, with the exception of a small number of common abbreviations.
Abbreviations from several words are separated by spaces (760 mm Hg, mp), except for common ones (etc.) and abbreviations (RFA , Eff.).
Abbreviations or formulas of molecular species, used as adjectives, are written through hyphens: IR-spectroscopy, PE-film, LC-state, Na+-form, OH-group.
The dimensions are separated from the digit by a space (17.5 mol/m3, 77 K, 58 J/mol, 50 m/s2, 20 °C, 50 %, 10 ‰) except angular degrees 90°.
The point after the dimensions is not set (s – second, g – gram). In complex dimensions, the multiplication sign (·) must be indicated: N·m / s or kg/(c·m·Pa).
For complex dimensions, it is allowed to use either J-mol-1 · K-1 or J·mol-1·K-1, or brackets: J/(mol·K) or J·(mol·K)-1, if this facilitates its reading.
The main condition is observance of uniformity of identical dimensions in the paper.
When enumerating, as well as in numerical intervals, the dimension is given only for the last number (10, 15 and 45 min, from 18 to 20 mm, 30-40 J/mole), except angular degrees: 5°-10°, but not 5–10°.
Variable dimensions should be written with commas (E, J/mol), and sublogarithmic values should be written in square brackets, without a comma: ln t [min].
Dots and spaces
The point is not put after the title of the paper, the list of authors, the list of organizations, headings and sub-headings, table names and captions.
The point after the abbreviations is not set in the subscripts (Tm is the melting point).
References to figures and tables are typed with spaces (Figure 5, Table 2).
Quotes and brackets are not separated by spaces from the words enclosed in them: (at 300 K), (a).
Between the sign of the number or paragraph and the number should be a blank (No. 1, § 5.5).
Numbers with letters in the notations are typed without spaces (IVd; 1.3.14a; Fig. 1, a).
In geographical coordinates, the latitudes are separated by spaces: 56.5°C or 56.5°N; 85.0°B or 85.0°E.
In geographical names, a space is placed after the point: r. Yenisei, Novosibirsk.
Requirements for illustrations
Illustrations and its signatures are located in the text of the manuscript.
Illustrations are numbered in order of mentioning them in the text in Arabic numerals. In the text there should be a link to all figures.
Under each figure there should be a corresponding caption signature.
Fig. 1. The particles of В4С-Ni-Р powder
General technical requirements:
illustrations should have dimensions corresponding to its informativeness: 8-8.5 cm (one column) or 17-17.5 cm (two columns);
the caption and indications in the illustrations may vary between Russian and English versions when translating; therefore, for photos it is desirable to provide a second variant without text and all indications; for the remaining illustrations it is desirable place indications in the illustration so that they do not come into contact with any of its parts;
in photographs (for example, structures), dimensional marks must be indicated;
for caption and indications use standard TrueType fonts;
please do not add to the background of illustrations a gray (colored) background or a grid.
graphics and diagrams are preferably prepared in vector graphics editors;
- should have a resolution of at least 600 dpi;
- the thickness of the lines should be at least 0.5 pt;
- vector illustrations should not contain dot shades, such as “Noise”, “Black & white noise”, “Top noise”;
- for vector graphics, all used fonts should be included in the file.
Line illustrations:
Halftone Illustrations:
- should have a resolution of at least 300 dpi
Combined halftone / line art illustration:
 - should have a resolution of at least 600 dpi.



 English-language paper block preparation

   We draw the attention of our authors that, in connection with the planned preparation of the journal for inclusion in the international databases, the bibliographic description and scientific citation of Web of Science and Scopus since 2014, the rules for processing the manuscripts submitted have been substantially changed. The main goal of the changes is to make the main provisions and conclusions of the papers published in the journal accessible to a broad overseas audience who does not speak Russian. Of particular importance now are the English abstract to the papers and the list of references used by the author, because it, and not the text of the paper itself, are reflected in the Scopus and Web of Science systems. In its content and informative Abstract and References should draw the attention of foreign readers to the topic of the paper. As a consequence, it is in the author's interest to be scrupulous about the preparation of these paper blocks and ensure their highest quality.
   The English-language part of the paper is prepared on the next page, immediately after the Russian-language list of literature and includes:
• Title, translated from the Russian language. In translation of the title of the papers into English there should not be any transliteration from the Russian language, except untranslated proper names and other objects having its own names; untranslatable slang, known only to Russian-speaking specialists, is also not used. This also touches on the author's annotations and keywords;
• Affiliation.
For each author the following information is indicated: Family name and first letter of the Name and Patronymic, degree, rank, position, e-mail, address data [the organization official name in English, which the author represents, the full postal address of the organization (including the street name, city, postal code, country)]. To indicate the degree, rank, position, the following reference materials should be used;
• Abstract – should contain more words than abstract in Russian and includes at least 250 words, it is recommended to follow the chronology of the paper, use the English-language special terminology, not include non-essential details and use an active rather than passive voice, avoid complex grammatical constructions (not applicable in scientific English);
• Keywords;
• References. References to sources in the English-speaking list should coincide with the references presented in the Russian-language list of used literature.
A list of all the literature used in the paper is given in Latin (sources in English, French, German, and other languages - in the original, Russian sources need to be translated (the rules of translation see below)). For automatic transliteration into the Latin script it is recommended to contact http://translit.ru (transliteration standard - BSI, pre-transliteration setting).
Information on the sources of funding for the study (grants, if necessary).
Attention! Authors are not allowed to provide translations of papers headings, abstracts, keywords and information on the sources of funding prepared with the help of electronic translation systems (errors and incorrect translation will be rejected).
Download rules for the English-language paper block preparation


 Rules for preparation a list of literature in the English-language block*

*Based on the works of O. V. Kirillova:
1. Editorial preparation of scientific journals for inclusion in foreign citation indexes: methodological recommendations. M., 2012, 68 p.;
2. Editorial preparation of scientific journals on international standards. Recommendations of the expert DB Scopus. M., 2013. Part 1. 90 p.
Lists of literature in Russian journals include a wide variety of Russian-language sources: journals, conference proceedings, collections, monographs, patents, dissertations, reports, laws, regulations, etc. Therefore, there are constant questions about how to prepare descriptions for these publications for References.
To prepare a description of these types of documents, it is necessary to take into account the fact that these publications are not available in the system and are not intended to establish the correspondence between publications and references to it. However, it should also be necessarily represented in the Roman alphabet. Therefore, its descriptions can be made rather short. The exception is translated books, mostly monographs.
If one prepares links in References with an understanding of the purpose of its presentation in the system, then there are a number of rules, obey which one can get the maximum number of publication-related links in the journal. Such rules include:
1) a description of a translated version of a journal, which is likely to be or has already been submitted to Scopus should be presented in References instead of its Russian-language ones;
2) since it is known that the descriptions of citations included in foreign citation indexes and other publications databases are given by its English block, in the most ideal case, in References it is possible to include the translated title of the paper in the form indicated in the journal (and then in database). In this case, the transliteration of the paper title is not required, but the language of publication (in Russian) is indicated in round brackets after its description;
3) a description of an original version of the book (monograph) should be presented in References instead of its translated publication because citation indexes increasingly include books in its resources, including Scopus. A translated version can also be described as additional information (in round brackets). See the example below;
4) it is prohibited to present only transliterated (without translation) description in References, since it makes such description completely unreadable. Therefore, if it is necessary to shorten the description, it is better to give its translation description with the indication in round brackets (in Russian). This refers more to anonymous works: legislative, normative documents, as well as to patents, dissertations, reports and other documents not typical for citation indexes;
5) in the description of publications without authors (collected papers, multi-authored monograph) it is allowed to write one or two editors instead of authors;
6) for unpublished documents, it is possible to make the shortest name with an indication in brackets (unpublished), if it has authorship (to account for the author's references), or simply “Unpublished Source” or “Unpublished Report”, etc., if there is no authorship in the document;
7) since Russian-language sources are difficult to identify by foreign experts, it is recommended to italicize the original source name, as in most foreign standards;
8) if the described publication has doi, it should be indicated in the References, since this identifier is the most accurate source of information about the paper and a link with publication is made on it;
9) it is undesirable to make arbitrary abbreviations of source names in the references. This often leads to a loss of link, since the name may not be identified.
10) all major publishing imprint (in the descriptions of the journal: volume, number, pages; in the descriptions of the books: the place of publication – the city, the publishing house (except proper name of the publishing house, it is transliterated)) should be presented in English.
11) in the descriptions of Russian-language textbooks and teaching aids it is not necessary to indicate the type of publications. This information in the references is redundant.
12) the publications imprint in the references (papers, books) should indicate the number of pages of publication: the range of pages in the publication is indicated by “pp.” before the pages; the number of pages in the full edition (book) is indicated as “p.” after the number of pages;
13) the translation of the paper title or the source is taken in square brackets; round brackets are sometimes used, however, if square brackets are used for other purposes in the descriptions of publications, round brackets may have a different use, so using it may cause confusion in the descriptions;
14) one publication is described in the References once only, no matter how many times the source is mentioned in the text of the publication;
15) if the book in the References is described in its entirety, then the full volume of the publication should be indicated in the bib-bipisation, regardless of which pages of the publication were cited in the text; exceptions are cases where separate chapters are used from the book; In this variant, the description of the chapter is given in the list of references, with the indication of pages "from-to."
16) use the system of automatic translation of Cyrillic alphabet into the Roman alphabet; do not do transliteration manually. This will avoid transliteration errors.
For the transliteration of Russian words, it is advisable to use the site: http://translit.net/
One need to enter the Translit.net program, turn on the Russian language, select the variant of the BSI standard(British Standard Institute), insert the text of the link in Russian into the required field and click “to translit”.
The last two paragraphs of the “rules” refer to the process of writing bibopanies in general. Some examples of links to different types of publications are presented bellow.

 Journal paper description:

Atapin V.G., Skeeba V.Yu. Chislennoe modelirovanie beskarkasnykh arochnykh pokrytii [Numerical simulation of frameless arched covers]. Obrabotka metallov (tekhnologiya, oborudovanie, instrumenty) = Metal Working and Material Science, 2012, no. 4(57), pp. 23–27.
Kiselev E.S., Unyanin A.N., Kurzanova Z.S., Kuznetsova M.A. Sovremennye smazochno-okhlazhdayushchie zhidkosti [Modern coolants]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya - Russian Engineering Research, 1996, no. 7, pp. 30-34.
Electron journal description:
Swaminathan V., Lepkoswka-White E., Rao B.P. Browsers or buyers in cyberspace? An investigation of electronic factors influencing electronic exchange. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 1999, vol. 5, no. 2. Available at: http://www. ascusc.org/ jcmc/vol5/ issue2/ (Accessed 28 April 2011).
If the paper has a DOI – be sure to specify it!
Paper with DOI description:
Abul’khanov S.R., Goryainov D.S., Skuratov D.L., Shvetsov A.N. Formation of the surface layer in diamond smoothing. Russian Engineering Research, 2015, vol. 35, iss. 2, pp. 147-149. doi: 10.3103/S1068798X15020033
Ding H.T., Shin Y.C. Laser-assisted machining of hardened steel parts with surface integrity analysis. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2010, vol. 50, iss. 1, pp. 106-114. doi:10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2009.09.001
Serial paper description (collected works):
Astakhov M.V., Tagantsev T.V. [Experimental study of the strength of joints "steelcomposite"]. Trudy MGTU «Matematicheskoe modelirovanie slozhnykh tekhnicheskikh sistem» [Proceedings of the Bauman MSTU “Mathematical Modeling of Complex Technical Systems”], 2006, no. 593, pp. 125–130. (In Russian)
Proceedings description:
Usmanov T.S., Gusmanov A.A., Mullagalin I.Z., Muhametshina R.Ju., Chervyakova A.N., Sveshnikov A.V. [Features of the design of field development with the use of hydraulic fracturing]. Trudy 6 Mezhdunarodnogo Simpoziuma “Novye resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii nedropol'zovaniya i povysheniya neftegazootdachi” [Proceedings 6th International Symposium “New energy saving subsoil technologies and the increasing of the oil and gas impact”]Moscow, 2007, pp. 267–272. (In Russian).
It is undesirable to leave only the translation name of the conference, since it is difficult to identify when trying to find these materials.
Sen'kin A.V. [Issues of vibration diagnostics of elastic spacecraft]. Problemy teotrii i praktiki v inzhenernykh issledovaniyakh. Trudy 33 nauchnoi konferentsii RUDN[Problems of the Theory and Practice of Engineering Research. Proc. Russ. Univ. People’s Friendship 33rd Sci. Conf.]. Moscow, 1997, pp. 223-225. (In Russian)
Description of the book (monographs, collections):
Nenashev M.F. Poslednee pravitel'stvo SSSR [Last government of the USSR]. Moscow, Krom Publ., 1993. 221 p.
Ot katastrofy k vozrozhdeniyu: prichiny i posledstviya razrusheniya SSSR [From disaster to rebirth: the causes and consequences of the destruction of the Soviet Union]. Moscow, HSE Publ., 1999. 381 p.
Lindorf L.S., Mamikoniants L.G., eds. Ekspluatatsiya turbogeneratorov s neposredstvennym okhlazhdeniem [Operation of turbine generators with direct cooling]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1972. 352 p.
Kanevskaya R.D. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov razrabotki mestorozhdenii uglevodorodov [Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of hydrocarbon deposit development]. Izhevsk, 2002. 140 p.
Izvekov V.I., Serikhin N.A., Abramov A.I. Proektirovanie turbogeneratorov [Design of turbo-generators]. Moscow, MEI Publ., 2005, 440 p.
Latyshev V.N. Tribologiya rezaniya. Kn. 1: Friktsionnye protsessy pri rezanie metallov [Tribology of Cutting, Vol. 1: Frictional Processes in Metal Cutting], Ivanovo, Ivanovskii Gos. Univ. Publ., 2009. 245 p.
Belousov, A.I., Bobrik, P.I., Rakhman_Zade, A.Z. Teplovye yavleniya i obrabatyvaemost' rezaniem aviatsionnykh materialov. Trudy MATI [Thermal Phenomena and the Ease of Cutting of Aviation Materials: Proceedings of the Moscow Aviation Engineering Institute]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1966, no. 64.
The last description is not complete. It is not clear whether the book as a whole (monograph), published in the series of works of the institute, is described, or this paper (in the description without the title of the paper). In this case, there is no indication of the pages. If it is the monograph, then total amount of pages should be indicated (235 p.), If it is a paper – a range of pages or one page should be indicated (pp. 220-222). However, in any case, this link will be found when searching for authors publications.
Translated book desription:
Timoshenko S.P., Young D.H., Weaver W. Vibration problems in engineering. 4th ed. New York, Wiley, 1974. 521 p. (Russ. ed.: Timoshenko S.P., Iang D.Kh., Uiver U. Kolebaniya v inzhenernom dele. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1985. 472 p.).
Brooking A., Jones P., Cox F. Expert systems. Principles and case studies. Chapman and Hall, 1984. 231 p. (Russ. ed.: Bruking A., Dzhons P., Koks F. Ekspertnye sistemy. Printsipy raboty i primery. Moscow, Radio i sviaz' Publ., 1987. 224 p.).
If the original, by which the translation of the book was made, can be identified then it is useful to describe it as the main name, instead of the translation one. This variant of the description makes it possible to find the authors' publications in the real representation of their surnames, and the differences from the translated version (by all rules, when translating the description into the Latin alphabet, the names of the authors are transliterated, which significantly distorts its writing - the example above shows it well).
When it is not possible to reveal information about the original version of the book, or the translated version is, for example, a collection of several foreign publications, a translation edition should be used.
Unpublished document description:
Latypov A.R., Khasanov M.M., Baikov V.A. Geology and Production (NGT GiD). The Certificate on official registration of the computer program. No. 2004611198, 2004. (In Russian, unpublished).
Pressure generator GD-2M. Technical description and user manual. Zagorsk, Res. Inst. of Appl. Chem. Publ., 1975. 15 p. (In Russian, unpublished).
Internet resource description:
Kondrat'ev V.B. Global'naya farmatsevticheskaya promyshlennost' [The global pharmaceutical industry]. Available at: http://perspektivy.info/rus/ekob/globalnaja_farmacevticheskaja_promyshlennost_2011-07-18.html. (accessed 23.06.2013)
APA Style (2011). Available at: http://www.apastyle.org/apa-style-help.aspx (accessed 05.02.2011).
Thesis work or synopsis of thesis description:
Semenov V.I. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie plazmy v sisteme kompaktnyi tor. Diss. dokt. fiz.-mat. nauk [Mathematical modeling of the plasma in the compact torus. Dr. phys. and math. sci. diss.]. Moscow, 2003. 272 p.
Grigor'ev Iu.A. Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov proektirovaniia arkhitektury raspredelennykh sistem obrabotki dannykh. Diss. dokt. tekhn. nauk [Development of scientific bases of architectural design of distributed data processing systems. Dr. tech. sci. diss.]. Moscow, Bauman MSTU Publ., 1996. 243 p.
All-Union standard description:
GOST 8.586.5-2005. Metodika vypolneniia izmerenii. Izmerenie raskhoda i kolichestva zhidkostei i gazov spomoshch'iu standartnykh suzhaiushchikh ustroistv [State Standard 8.586.5 - 2005. Method of measurement. Measurement of flow rate and volume of liquids and gases by means of orifice devices]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2007. 10 p.
State Standard 8.586.5-2005. Method of measurement. Measurement of flow rate and volume of liquids and gases by means of orifice devices. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2007. 10 p. (In Russian)
Patent description:
Palkin M.V., e.a. Sposob orientirovaniiapo krenu letatel'nogo apparata s opticheskoi golovkoi samonavedeniia [The way to orient on the roll of aircraft with optical homing head]. Patent RF, no. 2280590, 2006.
The description does not contain all the authors as it is given in the basic References. If one works with References in good faith, then he/she can find a patent and add authors
Inventor's Certificate should be done likewise.
Anonymous documents description:
Russian Pharmaceutical Market. Results of 2010. The Analytical Review. DSM Group, 2011. 74 p. (In Russian)
Current status of the Russian pharmaceutical industry and international experience. Materials for the working group of the Commission for Modernization and Technological Development of Russia's Economy. Available at: http://www.strategy.ru. (In Russian)
Code of Business Conduct of OJSC “LUKOIL”. Available at: http://www.lukoil.ru/materials/doc/documents/lukoil_corp_code.pdf. (In Russian)
RF Federal Law “On Protection of Consumers' Rights” of February 07, 1992 N 2300-1 (as amended by Federal Law of January 09, 1996 N 2 FZ, December 17, 1999 N 212 FZ). (In Russian)


(structure, content and volume of the author's abstract to scientific papers in the journal are excerpts from the work of O.V. Kirillova ”Editorial preparation of scientific journals for inclusion in foreign citation indexes: methodical recommendations .- Moscow, 2012”, Ph.D. in Engineering Science, Head of the Department of VINITI RAS, Member of the Advisory Board on Content Creation (CSAB) SciVerse Scopus, Elsevier)
   The author's abstract should state the essential facts of the work, and should not exaggerate or contain any material that is missing in the main part of the publication. The results of the work are described extremely accurately and informatively. The main theoretical and experimental results, actual data, discovered relationships and regularities are presented. At the same time, preference is given to new results and long-term data, important discoveries, conclusions that refute existing theories, as well as to data that, in the author's opinion, are of practical importance. Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, estimates, suggestions, hypotheses, described in the paper.
   The information contained in the title of the paper should not be repeated in the text of the author's abstract. Unnecessary introductory phrases (for example, “the author of the paper considers ...”) should be avoided. Historical references, if they do not constitute the main content of the document, a description of previously published works and well-known provisions in the author's abstract should not be given.
   In the text of the author's abstract the syntactic structures inherent in the language of scientific and technical documents should be used, complex grammatical constructions should be avoided. In the text of the author's abstract meaningful words from the text of the paper should be used. The text of the author's abstract should be laconic and clear, free of background information, superfluous opening words, general and insignificant formulations. The text should be coherent, disjointed statements should logically follow one another. Abbreviations and symbols are used in exceptional cases or its decoding and definitions should be given when first used in the author's abstract. The author's abstract does not refer to the publication number in the list of references to the paper.
   The volume of the text of the author's abstract is determined by the content of the publication (the amount of information, its scientific and/or practical value), but should be not less than 250 words, a larger volume is preferable).
Example of an author's abstract  in Russian:
   Значительная часть инновационных планов по внедрению изменений, содержащих в своей основе нововведения, либо не доходит до практической реализации, либо в действительности приносит гораздо меньше пользы, чем планировалось. Одна из причин этих тенденций кроется в отсутствии у руководителя реальных инструментов по планированию, оценке и контролю над инновациями. В статье предлагается механизм стратегического планирования компании, основанный на анализе как внутренних возможностей организации, так и внешних конкурентных сил, поиске путей использования внешних возможностей с учетом специфики компании. Стратегическое планирование опирается на свод правил и процедур, содержащих серию методов, использование которых позволяет руководителям компаний обеспечить быстрое реагирование на изменение внешней конъюнктуры. К таким методам относятся: стратегическое сегментирование; решение проблем в режиме реального времени; диагностика стратегической готовности к работе в условиях будущего; разработка общего плана управления; планирование предпринимательской позиции фирмы; стратегическое преобразование организации. Процесс стратегического планирования представлен в виде замкнутого цикла, состоящего из 9-ти последовательных этапов, каждый из которых представляет собой логическую последовательность мероприятий, обеспечивающих динамику развития системы. Результатом разработанной автором методики стратегического планирования является предложение перехода к «интерактивному стратегическому менеджменту», который в своей концептуальной основе ориентируется на творческий потенциал всего коллектива и изыскание путей его построения на основе оперативного преодоления ускоряющихся изменений, возрастающей организационной сложности и непредсказуемой изменяемости внешнего окружения.
This is the same author's abstract in English:
A considerable part of innovative plans concerning implementation of developments with underlying novelties either do not reach the implementing stage, or in fact yield less benefit than anticipated. One of the reasons of such failures is the fact that the manager lacks real tools for planning, evaluating and controlling innovations. The article brings forward the mechanism for a strategic planning of a company, based on the analysis of both inner company’s resources, and outer competitive strength, as well as on searching ways of using external opportunities with account taken of the company’s specific character. Strategic planning is based on a code of regulations and procedures containing a series of methods, the use of which makes it possible for company’s manager to ensure prompt measures of reaction to outer business environment changes. Such methods include: strategic segmentation; solving problems in real-time mode; diagnostics of strategic readiness to operate in the context of the future; working out a general plan of management; planning of the business position of the firm; strategic transformation of the company. Strategic planning process is presented as a closed cycle consisting of 9 successive stages, each of them represents a logical sequence of measures ensuring the dynamics of system development. The developed by the author strategic planning methods result in the recommendation to proceed to “interactive strategic management” which is conceptually based on the constructive potential of the collective body, on searching ways of its building on the basis of effective overcoming accelerating changes, increasing organizational complexity, and unpredictable changeability of the environment.
An example of a structured author's abstract from a foreign journal in Scopus database:
Purpose: Because of the large and continuous energetic requirements of brain function, neurometabolic dysfunction is a key pathophysiologic aspect of the epileptic brain. Additionally, neurometabolic dysfunction has many self-propagating features that are typical of epileptogenic processes, that is, where each occurrence makes the likelihood of further mitochondrial and energetic injury more probable. Thus abnormal neurometabolism may be not only a chronic accompaniment of the epileptic brain, but also a direct contributor to epileptogenesis.
Methods: We examine the evidence for neurometabolic dysfunction in epilepsy, integrating human studies of metabolic imaging, electrophysiology, microdialysis, as well as intracranial EEG and neuropathology.
Results: As an approach of noninvasive functional imaging, quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) measured abnormalities of mitochondrial and energetic dysfunction (via 1H or 31P spectroscopy) are related to several pathophysiologic indices of epileptic dysfunction. With patients undergoing hippocampal resection, intraoperative 13C-glucose turnover studies show a profound decrease in neurotransmitter (glutamate-glutamine) cycling relative to oxidation in the sclerotic hippocampus. Increased extracellular glutamate (which has long been associated with increased seizure likelihood) is significantly linked with declining energetics as measured by 31PMR, as well as with increased EEG measures of Teager energy, further arguing for a direct role of glutamate with hyperexcitability.
Discussion: Given the important contribution that metabolic performance makes toward excitability in brain, it is not surprising that numerous aspects of mitochondrial and energetic state link significantly with electrophysiologic and microdialysis measures in human epilepsy. This may be of particular relevance with the self-propagating nature of mitochondrial injury, but may also help define the conditions for which interventions may be developed. © 2008 International League Against Epilepsy.
Extracts from the recommendations of the authors of the Emerald publishing house journals
   The author's abstract is a brief summary of a larger volume of work of a scientific nature that is published in isolation from the main text and, therefore, in itself should be understandable without reference to the publication itself. It should state the essential facts of the work, and should not exaggerate or contain material that is not available in the body of the publication. The author's abstract serves as a reference tool (for the library, abstract service), allowing the reader to understand whether he/she should read or not read the full text.
   The author's abstract includes:
1. Purpose of the work in a concise form. Background (history of the matter) can be given only if it is context-related to the goal.
2. Summarizing the main facts of the work, it is necessary to remember the following points:
- follow the chronology of the paper and use its headings as a guide;
- do not include non-essential details;
- you write for a competent audience, so you can use the technical (special) terminology of your discipline, clearly stating your opinion and also having in mind that you write for an international audience;
- the text should be coherent with the use of the words “"Because", "addition", "for example", "the benefits of this study", "as a result" etc., or the disjointed statements should logically follow one another;
- it is necessary to use an active, rather than passive, voice; “The study tested”, but not “It was tested in this study” (a frequent mistake of the Russian annotations);
- the style of writing should be compact (dense), so the sentences are likely to be longer than usual.
   Some examples of negative abstracts are available on the publisher's website
The website of the publishing house also gives examples of good abstracts for various types of papers (reviews, scientific papers, concept papers, practical papers):